Flask-PyMongo

MongoDB is an open source database that stores flexible JSON-like “documents,” which can have any number, name, or hierarchy of fields within, instead of rows of data as in a relational database. Python developers can think of MongoDB as a persistent, searchable repository of Python dictionaries (and, in fact, this is how PyMongo represents MongoDB documents).

Flask-PyMongo bridges Flask and PyMongo and provides some convenience helpers.

Quickstart

First, install Flask-PyMongo:

$ pip install Flask-PyMongo

Next, add a PyMongo to your code:

from flask import Flask
from flask_pymongo import PyMongo

app = Flask(__name__)
app.config["MONGO_URI"] = "mongodb://localhost:27017/myDatabase"
mongo = PyMongo(app)

PyMongo connects to the MongoDB server running on port 27017 on localhost, to the database named myDatabase. This database is exposed as the db attribute.

You can use db directly in views:

@app.route("/")
def home_page():
    online_users = mongo.db.users.find({"online": True})
    return render_template("index.html",
        online_users=online_users)

Note

Previous versions of Flask-PyMongo required that the MongoDB URI contained a database name; as of 2.2, this requirement is lifted. If there is no database name, the db attribute will be None.

Compatibility

Flask-PyMongo depends on recent versions of Flask and PyMongo, where “recent” is defined to mean “was released in the last 3 years”. Flask-PyMongo may work with older versions, but compatibility fixes for older versions will not be accepted, and future changes may break compatibility in older versions.

Flask-PyMongo is tested against supported versions of MongoDB, and Python 2.7 and 3.4+. For the exact list of version combinations that are tested and known to be compatible, see the envlist in tox.ini.

Helpers

Flask-PyMongo provides helpers for some common tasks:

Collection.find_one_or_404(*args, **kwargs)

Find a single document or raise a 404.

This is like find_one(), but rather than returning None, cause a 404 Not Found HTTP status on the request.

@app.route("/user/<username>")
def user_profile(username):
    user = mongo.db.users.find_one_or_404({"_id": username})
    return render_template("user.html",
        user=user)
PyMongo.send_file(filename, base='fs', version=-1, cache_for=31536000)

Respond with a file from GridFS.

Returns an instance of the response_class containing the named file, and implement conditional GET semantics (using make_conditional()).

@app.route("/uploads/<path:filename>")
def get_upload(filename):
    return mongo.send_file(filename)
Parameters:
  • filename (str) – the filename of the file to return
  • base (str) – the base name of the GridFS collections to use
  • version (bool) – if positive, return the Nth revision of the file identified by filename; if negative, return the Nth most recent revision. If no such version exists, return with HTTP status 404.
  • cache_for (int) – number of seconds that browsers should be instructed to cache responses
PyMongo.save_file(filename, fileobj, base='fs', content_type=None, **kwargs)

Save a file-like object to GridFS using the given filename.

@app.route("/uploads/<path:filename>", methods=["POST"])
def save_upload(filename):
    mongo.save_file(filename, request.files["file"])
    return redirect(url_for("get_upload", filename=filename))
Parameters:
  • filename (str) – the filename of the file to return
  • fileobj (file) – the file-like object to save
  • base (str) – base the base name of the GridFS collections to use
  • content_type (str) – the MIME content-type of the file. If None, the content-type is guessed from the filename using guess_type()
  • kwargs – extra attributes to be stored in the file’s document, passed directly to gridfs.GridFS.put()
class flask_pymongo.BSONObjectIdConverter(map)

A simple converter for the RESTful URL routing system of Flask.

@app.route("/<ObjectId:task_id>")
def show_task(task_id):
    task = mongo.db.tasks.find_one_or_404(task_id)
    return render_template("task.html", task=task)

Valid object ID strings are converted into ObjectId objects; invalid strings result in a 404 error. The converter is automatically registered by the initialization of PyMongo with keyword ObjectId.

Configuration

You can configure Flask-PyMongo either by passing a MongoDB URI to the PyMongo constructor, or assigning it to the MONGO_URI Flask configuration variable

You may also pass additional keyword arguments to the PyMongo constructor. These are passed directly through to the underlying MongoClient object.

Note

By default, Flask-PyMongo sets the connect keyword argument to False, to prevent PyMongo from connecting immediately. PyMongo itself is not fork-safe, and delaying connection until the app is actually used is necessary to avoid issues. If you wish to change this default behavior, pass connect=True as a keyword argument to PyMongo.

You can create multiple PyMongo instances, to connect to multiple databases or database servers:

app = Flask(__name__)

# connect to MongoDB with the defaults
mongo1 = PyMongo(app, uri="mongodb://localhost:27017/databaseOne")

# connect to another MongoDB database on the same host
mongo2 = PyMongo(app, uri="mongodb://localhost:27017/databaseTwo")

# connect to another MongoDB server altogether
mongo3 = PyMongo(app, uri="mongodb://another.host:27017/databaseThree")

Each instance is independent of the others and shares no state.

API

Classes

class flask_pymongo.PyMongo(app=None, uri=None, *args, **kwargs)

Manages MongoDB connections for your Flask app.

PyMongo objects provide access to the MongoDB server via the db and cx attributes. You must either pass the Flask app to the constructor, or call init_app().

PyMongo accepts a MongoDB URI via the MONGO_URI Flask configuration variable, or as an argument to the constructor or init_app. See init_app() for more detail.

cx

The MongoClient connected to the MongoDB server.

db

The Database if the URI used named a database, and None otherwise.

init_app(app, uri=None, *args, **kwargs)

Initialize this PyMongo for use.

Configure a MongoClient in the following scenarios:

  1. If uri is not None, pass the uri and any positional or keyword arguments to MongoClient
  2. If uri is None, and a Flask config variable named MONGO_URI exists, use that as the uri as above.

The caller is responsible for ensuring that additional positional and keyword arguments result in a valid call.

Changed in version 2.2: The uri is no longer required to contain a database name. If it does not, then the db attribute will be None.

Changed in version 2.0: Flask-PyMongo no longer accepts many of the configuration variables it did in previous versions. You must now use a MongoDB URI to configure Flask-PyMongo.

save_file(filename, fileobj, base='fs', content_type=None, **kwargs)

Save a file-like object to GridFS using the given filename.

@app.route("/uploads/<path:filename>", methods=["POST"])
def save_upload(filename):
    mongo.save_file(filename, request.files["file"])
    return redirect(url_for("get_upload", filename=filename))
Parameters:
  • filename (str) – the filename of the file to return
  • fileobj (file) – the file-like object to save
  • base (str) – base the base name of the GridFS collections to use
  • content_type (str) – the MIME content-type of the file. If None, the content-type is guessed from the filename using guess_type()
  • kwargs – extra attributes to be stored in the file’s document, passed directly to gridfs.GridFS.put()
send_file(filename, base='fs', version=-1, cache_for=31536000)

Respond with a file from GridFS.

Returns an instance of the response_class containing the named file, and implement conditional GET semantics (using make_conditional()).

@app.route("/uploads/<path:filename>")
def get_upload(filename):
    return mongo.send_file(filename)
Parameters:
  • filename (str) – the filename of the file to return
  • base (str) – the base name of the GridFS collections to use
  • version (bool) – if positive, return the Nth revision of the file identified by filename; if negative, return the Nth most recent revision. If no such version exists, return with HTTP status 404.
  • cache_for (int) – number of seconds that browsers should be instructed to cache responses

Wrappers

Flask-PyMongo wraps PyMongo’s MongoClient, Database, and Collection classes, and overrides their attribute and item accessors. Wrapping the PyMongo classes in this way lets Flask-PyMongo add methods to Collection while allowing user code to use MongoDB-style dotted expressions.

>>> type(mongo.cx)
<type 'flask_pymongo.wrappers.MongoClient'>
>>> type(mongo.db)
<type 'flask_pymongo.wrappers.Database'>
>>> type(mongo.db.some_collection)
<type 'flask_pymongo.wrappers.Collection'>
class flask_pymongo.wrappers.Collection(...)

Sub-class of PyMongo Collection with helpers.

find_one_or_404(*args, **kwargs)

Find a single document or raise a 404.

This is like find_one(), but rather than returning None, cause a 404 Not Found HTTP status on the request.

@app.route("/user/<username>")
def user_profile(username):
    user = mongo.db.users.find_one_or_404({"_id": username})
    return render_template("user.html",
        user=user)

History and Contributors

Changes:

  • 2.2.0: November 1, 2018

    • #117 Allow URIs without database name.
  • 2.1.0: August 6, 2018

  • 2.0.1: July 17, 2018

    • #113 Make the app argument to PyMongo optional (yarobob).
  • 2.0.0: July 2, 2018

    This release is not compatible with Flask-PyMongo 0.5.x or any earlier version. You can see an explanation of the reasoning and changes in issue #110.

    • Only support configuration via URI.
    • Don’t connect to MongoDB by default.
    • Clarify version support of Python, Flask, PyMongo, and MongoDB.
    • Readability improvement to README.md (MinJae Kwon).
  • 0.5.2: May 19, 2018

    • #102 Return 404, not 400, when given an invalid input to BSONObjectIdConverter (Abraham Toriz Cruz).
  • 0.5.1: May 24, 2017

    • #93 Supply a default MONGO_AUTH_MECHANISM (Mark Unsworth).
  • 0.5.0: May 21, 2017

    This will be the last 0.x series release. The next non-bugfix release will be Flask-PyMongo 2.0, which will introduce backwards breaking changes, and will be the foundation for improvements and changes going forward. Flask-PyMongo 2.0 will no longer support Python 2.6, but will support Python 2.7 and Python 3.3+.

    • #44, #51 Redirect / to /HomePage in the wiki example (David Awad)
    • #76 Build on more modern Python versions (Robson Roberto Souza Peixoto)
    • #79, #84, #85 Don’t use flask.ext import paths any more (ratson, juliascript)
    • #40, #83, #86 Fix options parsing from MONGO_URI (jobou)
    • #72, #80 Support MONGO_SERVER_SELECTION_TIMEOUT_MS (Henrik Blidh)
    • #34, #64, #88 Support from MONGO_AUTH_SOURCE and MONGO_AUTH_MECHANISM (Craig Davis)
    • #74, #77, #78 Fixed maxPoolSize in PyMongo 3.0+ (Henrik Blidh)
    • #82 Fix “another user is already authenticated” error message.
    • #54 Authenticate against “admin” database if no MONGO_DBNAME is provided.
  • 0.4.1: January 25, 2016

    • Add the connect keyword: #67.
  • 0.4.0: October 19, 2015

    • Flask-Pymongo is now compatible with pymongo 3.0+: #63.
  • 0.3.1: April 9, 2015

    • Flask-PyMongo is now tested against Python 2.6, 2.7, 3.3, and 3.4.
    • Flask-PyMongo installation now no longer depends on nose.
    • #58 Update requirements for PyMongo 3.x (Emmanuel Valette).
    • #43 Ensure error is raised when URI database name is parsed as ‘None’ (Ben Jeffrey).
    • #50 Fix a bug in read preference handling (Kevin Funk).
    • #46 Cannot use multiple replicaset instances which run on different ports (Mark Unsworth).
    • #30 ConfiguationError with MONGO_READ_PREFERENCE (Mark Unsworth).
  • 0.3.0: July 4, 2013

    • This is a minor version bump which introduces backwards breaking changes! Please read these change notes carefully.
    • Removed read preference constants from Flask-PyMongo; to set a read preference, use the string name or import contants directly from pymongo.read_preferences.ReadPreference.
    • #22 (partial) Add support for MONGO_SOCKET_TIMEOUT_MS and MONGO_CONNECT_TIMEOUT_MS options (ultrabug).
    • #27 (partial) Make Flask-PyMongo compatible with Python 3 (Vizzy).
  • 0.2.1: December 22, 2012

    • #19 Added MONGO_DOCUMENT_CLASS config option (jeverling).
  • 0.2.0: December 15, 2012

    • This is a minor version bump which may introduce backwards breaking changes! Please read these change notes carefully.
    • #17 Now using PyMongo 2.4’s MongoClient and MongoReplicaSetClient objects instead of Connection and ReplicaSetConnection classes (tang0th).
    • #17 Now requiring at least PyMongo version 2.4 (tang0th).
    • #17 The wrapper class flask_pymongo.wrappers.Connection is renamed to flask_pymongo.wrappers.MongoClient (tang0th).
    • #17 The wrapper class flask_pymongo.wrappers.ReplicaSetConnection is renamed to flask_pymongo.wrappers.MongoReplicaSetClient (tang0th).
    • #18 MONGO_AUTO_START_REQUEST now defaults to False when connecting using a URI.
  • 0.1.4: December 15, 2012

    • #15 Added support for MONGO_MAX_POOL_SIZE (Fabrice Aneche)
  • 0.1.3: September 22, 2012

    • Added support for configuration from MongoDB URI.
  • 0.1.2: June 18, 2012

    • Updated wiki example application
    • #14 Added examples and docs to PyPI package.
  • 0.1.1: May 26, 2012

    • Added support for PyMongo 2.2’s “auto start request” feature, by way of the MONGO_AUTO_START_REQUEST configuration flag.
    • #13 Added BSONObjectIdConverter (Christoph Herr)
    • #12 Corrected documentation typo (Thor Adam)
  • 0.1: December 21, 2011

    • Initial Release

Contributors: